Go back Harsh Wardhan Pandey
Expert in Electric Vehicles

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In the present scenario, we are fighting with availability of energy resources to meet our daily needs. The surrounding is full of harmful gases and putting negative impact in the surrounding where we live in. The questions that arise are that how safe we are and how long we will be able to sustain in such environment which comprises of lack of resources, unhygienic surrounding and pollution.

Understanding the problem and the need:-
The use of fossil fuels is increasing rapidly which in turn is boosting the emission of air pollution and Greenhouse gases. India is currently the fourth largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the world. The transport sector accounts for 13% of India’s energy related CO2 emissions (INCCA, 2010).
GHG emissions can be reduced by adopting sustainable approach. Electric vehicles (EVs) are going to act as climate solution. They are opportunities to mitigate GHG emission. Introduction of EVs is to make transport growth more sustainable and compatible with climate.
What is Electric Vehicle?
‘Electric Vehicles’ are defined as vehicles which use an electric motor for propulsion and powered by rechargeable battery packs, rather than an internal combustion engine (ICE).
Major components of electric car are:

  • Electric motor
  • Potentiometer
  • Controller
  • Rechargeable battery

Working principle of electric vehicle - 
It uses a pack of batteries for providing power to the electric motor. The motor then uses the power (voltage) received from the batteries to rotate a transmission and the transmission turns the wheels.
When the driver steps on the pedal the potentiometer activates and provides the signal that tells the controller how much power it is supposed to deliver. There are two potentiometers for safety. The controller reads the setting of the accelerator pedal from the potentiometers, regulates the power accordingly, takes the power from the batteries and delivers it to the motor. The motor receives the power (voltage) from the controller and uses this power to rotate the transmission. The transmission then turns the wheels and causes the car to move forward or backward. If the driver floors the accelerator pedal, the controller delivers the full battery voltage to the motor. If the driver takes his/her foot off the accelerator, the controller delivers zero volts to the motor. For any setting in between, the controller chops the battery voltage, thousands of times per second to create an average voltage somewhere between 0 and full battery pack voltage.

Functionality of various parts of Electric Vehicle - 


  • Potentiometer: - It is circular in shape and it is hooked to the accelerator pedal. The potentiometer also called the variable resistor and provides the signal that tells the controller how much power is it supposed to deliver.
  • Batteries: - The batteries provide power for the controller. Three types of batteries: lead-acid, lithium ion, and nickel-metal hydride batteries. Batteries range in voltage (power).
  • DC Controller: - The controller takes power from the batteries and delivers it to the motor. The controller can deliver zero power (when the car is stopped), full power (when the driver floors the accelerator pedal), or any power level in between. If the battery pack contains twelve 12-volt batteries, wired in series to create 144 volts, the controller takes in 144 volts direct current, and delivers it to the motor in a controlled way. The controller reads the setting of the accelerator pedal from the two potentiometers and regulates the power accordingly. If the accelerator pedal is 25 percent of the way down, the controller pulses the power so it is on 25 percent of the time and off 75 percent of the time. If the signals of both potentiometers are not equal, the controller will not operate.
  • Motor: - The motor receives power from the controller and turns a transmission. The transmission then turns the wheels, causing the vehicle to run.

Advantages of Electric Vehicle
1. Availability of fuel. Requires electricity as fuel instead of petrol or diesel.
2. It reduces harmful gases like hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, which are responsible for many environmental problems.
3. It does not produce emissions. This will help in having clean air in the surrounding.
Bottlenecks to WORK ON!!
1. Total distance that can be travelled is very few kilometers due to battery issues.
2. Quite expensive.
3. Heavy weight due to installation of various components.
4. Charging infrastructure is to be erected.

In the next article, we will cover about
1. Types of Electric Vehicles
2. Difference in between Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles
3. Various Energy storage units available
4. Comparison of Combustion Engine, Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

Posted by : Very nice waiting for more
Posted by : Kratika Sharma
Nice article. Would request you share your insights on sustainability of electric vehicles in Indian market.
Posted by : Pawan Kumar Tiwari
Very Informative & my Favorite in Colg days...!
Posted by : Bhawana
Very informative...waiting for more information on this.
Posted by : very interesting and useful article
Wonderful sir ....My favorite one...
Posted by : Gunjan
Very informative .. wait for more to come
Posted by : Sarvesh
Very Nicely Written
Posted by : shivam
Nice article

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